Why fire burns upward?

Why fire burns upward?

  • We all know that fire burns upward. But why?
  • We can understand this with a candle example.
  • When we burn a candle, then we saw that fire burns upward. In this process, base of flame not so hot than upper flame. So atom arround of upper flame get very hot and its density will decrease atoms arround of base of the flame get low heat and its density will increase. So, there is work a force due to difference in density, which apply opposite to the gravitational force. It is called Buyonacy Force.
  • The color of the flame is spooky blue light. 
  • So, fire burns upward due to buoyancy force.

How fire burns on the earth?

How fire Burns On The Earth?

  • Basically, Fire needs three requirements. In the nature, if three requirements are fulfilled, then fire is possible. Three requirements are heat, fuel and oxygen.

  • Oxygen only helps to burn fire. Oxygen helps to combine with fuel.
  • If any fuel gets heated in the presence of oxygen then atoms of fuels vibrates and after then if we continue to give then atoms doing dance and after that in the presence of the more heat bond of atoms are broken and then fuel reduce heat and light. This process is called Fire.
  • Fire color is orange and yellow.

  • For example, we took a wood. If we give heat to a wood, then atoms of wood are broke and fire will burn.
  • In wood C, H, O and some other elements are present.
  • When wood burns then it reduces C and H and happened their oxidation.
  • C change in CO2 due to oxidation and H change in H2O due to oxidation. We all know H2O. It is called water vapor.
  • So this process is called burns a fire.

For more information view our video on YouTube.

Top 5 Future Technology

1. Autonomous Robots

Top 5 Future Technology

We all know that #robots make easy our lives and help us for any hard work. But think a little about smart robots who can think independently. A robot, who can think smart and great new idea and felt everything and can give emotions, is called Autonomous Robots.
Scientists are working on this type robots. Many robots have built for army mission, but #scientists try to make a helper robot which can help people in their daily life. 
Think, When you wake up, then Robot offers you coffee and if you have any problem and you are saying then robot ask you for telling your problem and then the robot will give perfect solution and try to happy you. This is cool.

2. Screenless Display

Top 5 Future Technology

This is an amazing and advanced #Technology to display anything. It has 3d images and HD revolution images. It is automatically revolution entertainment. Hologram is the most common example for visual images on Screenless Display.

3. Wireless Electricity

Top 5 Future Technology

You will think that this is impossible, but it is possible. 
You need two coils, a transmitter coil and a receiver coil. AN alternating #current in the transmitter coil generates a magnetic field which includes a voltage in the receiver coil. This voltage can be used to power a mobile device or charge a battery. 
It is very amazing. It is possible by MIT. It is transforming  of electromagnetic pulse. So now you understand it.

4. Invisibility

Top 5 Future Technology

When a person sees an object, the seeing is made possible by the effect of light bouncing off that object and back to your eyes. Different surfaces reflect light in different ways, depending on how they are shaped at the microscopic level. So if we designed some things in such a way that they cancel out the effect of these things that allow you the to see things, then your things become is invisible.

5. Flying Cars

Top 5 Future Technology

It is a dream, but near 2050 it is becoming in reality. Scientists are trying  to make a #Flying car.
In many fiction film flying cars predict. It will very safe and cool. No traffic problem and no more need of road.

For more technology and Top 10 Science Fact view our video on YouTube.

Top 10 Unanswered Questions In Physics

1. What is dark energy and dark matter?

Scientist calculates that, In the universe 73% dark energy, 23% dark matter and 4% normal matter. Now, you know that dark energy and dark matter both are very important because they have almost 96%. When scientist use the telescope for seeing in the universe, then they feel something which invisible (something dark) and then they called it 'Dark Matter'.

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Now we talk about dark energy. Dark energy is the biggest mystery of the universe. It is everywhere. It will determine the fate of our universe. And we still not idea what it is.

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    So what is existence of dark energy and dark matter. And why it is invisible?

2. What extra dimensions are possible?

We all know that there are three dimensions possible. When we describe the size of an object, or of a space like a room, we use three numbers; the height, the width and the depth. The height, width and depth of a room are numbers that can vary independently from one another. That is one way to see that space is three dimensional.

When mathematicians or physicists talk about dimensions, they mean the number of independent coordinates needed to specify any point in a given space. In presently there are three dimensions (x, y, z,).The gravitational force between two planets and the electrostatic force between two electric charges were both observed to vary as the inverse square  of the distance between the two objects. So if you twice as far away, the force will only be one fourth as strong. But the numbers of the coordinates in a mathematical equation are easy to increase on paper. When the gravitational and electrostatic equations are solved in a space with D dimensions, then the force varies with distance. This gives physicists an interesting way to do fine measurements of the numbers of the dimensions of space. And time will be an extra dimension.

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   So, what is possible? if this possible then howmany dimensions?And what mean of dimensions?

3. What is the real direction of flow of current electricity?

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We all know that electron flow negative terminal to positive terminal because positive treminal have lack of electrons and it attract electrons. And we also know that current flow opposite of flow of electron, means current flow positive terminal to negative terminal. But here is a big question that, why current flow in opposite direction of flow of electrons?

Actually Benzamin Franklin discover current electricity. In that time proton and electrone are not discover. He assume that current flow positive to negative. So it is     an assumption. So that's way we are not know actual direction of current.

    So, Which direction in current flow and why? 

4. Do we break the velocity of light?

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We all know that light have maximum velocity in the universe. It is 299792458 meter per second. It takes 499 seconds to travel from the sun to the earth. It is so fast.

So, What are we break it? 

5. How did the universe begin?

physics knowledge zone

physics knowledge zone

It is the biggest question. Many scientists try to solve this mystery but what is real? it nobody know.
Like, Stephen Hawking give many theories and a big bang model come. So many models come, but no any one knows about beginning the universe.

6. How is balance universe?

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Everyone believes in the balance of the world. But we don't know that why are we alive and which thing is supporting us. Every man is born but die. The universe is balanced. But we did not know that what is our existence? The nature has many thing and balanced, but what is the reason that we alive? 

  So,Why we alive and balanced and after some time die? And where we gone?

7.What is Gravity?

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physics knowledge zone

    So, Where does gravity come from?And what cause gravity?

8. What is the lifetime of the proton and how do we understand?

We know that every atom has a Nucleon and every nucleon have proton and neutron. Proton has a positive charge and mass, but neutron is neutral. But due to proton decay, one day destroy the whole molecule. But,in real this not possible.

    So, Why proton is not losing their charge and energy and don't destroy?

9. Where is the origin of ultra high energy cosmic rays?

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There are many rays, which include high temperature, come on the earth. And        happened global warming on the earth. Some rays are very dangerous which affect    the human body like ultraviolet ray. But we did not know there's origin.

So, Where are come from these rays and how it made? 

10. Do neutrinos have mass? 

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If we look deep into the universe, we stars and galaxies of all shapes and sizes. What we do not see, however, is that the universe is filled with particles called neutrinos. These particles have no charge and created less than one second after this bang bang. It is everywhere even in our body.

     So, What is mass of newtrinos?

Nanotechnology:Everything From Nothing

Basic Information:
    physics knowledge zone
    • Today, we are designing revolutionary new machines that are the ultimate tools, forged from individual atoms. In these machines we discover new technology which helps us very easily to work like nanotechnology.

    • Nanotechnology is so smart technology like LASER(in laser we made holomark by using nano technology),robot arms,wide motors and even whole computer.

I want to build a billion tiny factories, models of each otherwhich are manufacturing simultaneously. . . The principles of physics, as far as I can see, do not speak against the possibility of manufacturing things atom by atom. It is not an attempt to violate any laws; it is something, in principle, that can be done; but in practice, it has not been done because we are too big. — Richard Feynman, Nobel Prize winner in physics.

A Basic Definition: 

Nanotechnology is the Engineering of functional Systems at the molecular scale. This covers both current work and concepts that are more advanced.
In its original sense, 'Nanotechnology' refers to the projected ability to construct items from the bottom up, using techniques and tools being developed today to make complete, high performance products.

·  That means nanotechnology is the best technology in the world which describe below, the future of the nanotechnology in three stages of age.

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Near Time (present to 2030):

 Nanomachines in our bodies-

     In the near future, we should accept a new variety of Nano devices coursing throughout the bloodstream. In the movie Fantastic Voyage, a crew of scientists and their ship are miniaturized to the size of a red blood cell. Finally, they discover a new nanotechnology and they get a cancer patient and take him in the laboratory and then zoom their body in computer and zoom blood shell and then remove the cancer virus.
   Another example is the nanoparticles created by the scientists at BIND biosciences in Cambridge, Massachusetts. Its nanoparticles are made of polylactic acid and copolylactic acid/glycolic acid, which can hold drugs inside a molecular mass. This creates the payload of the nanoparticle. The guidance system of the nanoparticle is the peptides that coat the particle and specifically bind to the target cell. Clinical trials on human patients start in a few years.

DNA Chips-

    In the future we will have tiny sensors in our clothes, body and bathroom, constantly monitoring our health and detecting diseases like cancer years before they become a danger. The key to this is the DNA Chip which promises a "laboratory on a chip." Like the tricorder of Star Trek, these tiny sensors will give us a medical analysis within minutes.

Carbon Nanotubes-

   Carbon nanotubes are made of individual carbon atoms bonded to form a tube. Imagine chicken wire, where every joint is a carbon atom. Now roll up the chicken wire into a tube, and you have the geometry of a carbon nanotube. Carbon nanotubes are formed every time ordinary soot is created, but scientist never realized that carbon atoms could bond in such a novel way. One preview of the power of nanotechnology is Carbon Nanotubes. In principle, carbon nanotubes are stronger than steel and can also conduct electricity, so carbon based computers are a possibility. Although they are enormously strong, one problem is that they must be in pure form, and the longest pure carbon fiber is only a few centimeters long. But one day, entire computers may be made of carbon nanotubes and other molecular structures.

Quantum Computers-

    A quantum computer maintains a sequence of qubits. A single qubit can represent a one, a zero, or any quantum superposition of those two qubit states; a pair of qubits can be in any quantum superposition of 4 states, and three cubits in any superposition of 8 states.

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Atomic Transistors-

    A single-atom transistor is a device that can open and close an electrical circuit by the controlled and reversible repositioning of one single atom. The Single-Atom Transistor was invented and first demonstrated in 2004 by Prof. Thomas Schimmel and his team of scientists at the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (former University of Karlsruhe). By means of a small electrical voltage applied to a control electrode, the so-called Gate electrode, a single atom is reversibly moved in and out of a tiny junction, in this way closing and opening an electrical contact.

     Therefore, the Single-Atom Transistor works as an atomic switch or atomic relay, where the switchable atom opens and closes the gap between two tiny electrodes called the Source and Drain. The Single-Atom Transistor opens perspectives for the development of future atomic-scale logics and quantum electronics.

    At the same time, the device of the Karlsruhe team of researchers marks the lower limit of miniaturization, as feature sizes smaller than one atom cannot be produced lithographically. The device represents a quantum transistor, the conductance of the Source-Drain channel being defined by the rules of quantum mechanics. It can be operated at room temperature and at ambient conditions, i.e. neither cooling nor vacuum are required.

   Few atom transistors have been developed at Waseda University and at Italian CNR by Takahiro Shinada and Enrico Prati, who observed the Anderson-Mott transition in miniature by employing arrays of only two, four and six individually implanted As or P atoms.

Post Silicon Era-

    Moore's law,one of the foundations of the informationsrevalutions,cannot last forever.the future of the world economy and and the destinyof of nations ay ultimately hinge on which nation develops a suitable replacement of silicon.The current revalution in silicon based computers has been driven by one overriding fact;the ability of UV light to etch smaller and smaller transistor onto a water of silicon.Today,a pentium chip may have several hundred million transistors on a wafer the size of your thumnail.Because the wavelenghth of UV light can be as small as to nanometers,it is possible to use etching techniques to carve out components that are only thirty atoms across.But this process cannot continue forever.Sooner or later,it collapses,for several reasons.

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Midcentury (2030 to 2070):

Shape Shifting-

     In the movie Terminator 2;Judgement day,Arnold Schwarzenegger is attacked by an advanced robot from the future,a T-1000,which is made of liquid metal.Resembling a quivering mass of mercury,it can change shape and slither its way through any obstacle.it can seep through the tiniest cracks and fashion deadly weapons by reshaping its hand and feet.And then it can suddenly re form into its original shape to carry on its murderous rampage.The T-1000 appeared to be unstoppable,The perfect killing machine.

 All this was science fiction,of course.The technology of today does not allow you to change a solid object at will.Yet by midcentury a form of this shape-shifting technology may become commonplace. In fact,one of the main companies driving this technology is Intel.

Farfuture(2070 to 2100):

Holy Grail;The Replicator-

     By 2100, advocates of nanotechnology envision an even more poerful machine;a molecular assembler,or"replicator",capable of creating anything.It would consist of a machine perhaps the size of a washing machine.You would put the basic raw materials into the machine and then push a button.Trillions upon trillions of nanobots would then coverage on the raw materials,each one programmed to take them apart molecule molecule and then reassemble them into an entirely new product.the machine would be able to manufacture anything.the replicator would be the crowing achivements of engineering and science,the ultimate culmination of our struggles ever since we pickes up the first tool back in prehistory.

Gray Goo-

    The earliest proposals for molecular manufacturing technologies echoed biological systems. Huge numbers of tiny robots called “assemblers” would self-replicate, then work together to build large products, much like termites building a termite mound.

    Such systems appeared to run the risk of going out of control, perhaps even “eating” large portions of the biosphere. Eric Drexler warned in 1986, “We cannot afford certain kinds of accidents with replicating assemblers.” Since then, however, Drexler and others have developed models for making safer and more efficient machine-like systems that resemble an assembly line in a factory more than anything biological. These mechanical designs were described in detail in Drexler's 1992 seminal reference work, Nanosystems, which does not even mention free-floating autonomous assemblers. 

     Replicating assemblers will not be used for manufacturing. Factory designs using integrated nanotechnology will be much more efficient at building products, and a personal nanofactory is nothing like a grey goo nanobot. A stationary tabletop factory using only preprocessed chemicals would be both safer and easier to build. Like a drill press or a lathe, such a system could not run wild. Systems like this are the basis for responsible molecular manufacturing proposals. To evaluate Eric Drexler's technical ideas on the basis of grey goo is to miss the far more important policy issues created by general-purpose nanoscale manufacturing.

     A grey goo robot would face a much harder task than merely replicating itself. It would also have to survive in the environment, move around, and convert what it finds into raw materials and power. This would require sophisticated chemistry. None of these functions would be part of a molecular manufacturing system. A grey goo robot would also require a relatively large computer to store and process the full blueprint of such a complex device.